Refraction by a Lens Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure (c) The above figure shows the image formation by a convex lens. Assumptions made in the derivation: The lens is thin so that distances measured from the poles of its surfaces can be taken as equal to the distances from the optical centre of the lens. The aperture of the lens is small. The object consists only of a point lying on the principle axis of the lens. The incident ray and refracted ray make small angles with the principle axis of the lens. A convex lens is made up of two convex spherical refracting surfaces. The first refracting surface forms image I of the object O [figure (b)]. Image I_{1} acts as virtual object for the second surface that forms the image at I [figure (c)]. Applying the equation for spherical refracting surface to the first interface ABC, we obtain A similar procedure applied to the second interface ADC gives For a thin lens, BI_{1} = DI_{1} Adding equations (i) and (ii), we obtain Suppose the object is at infinity i.e., OB → ∞ and DI → f Equation (iii) gives The point where image of an object placed at infinity is formed is called the focus (F) of the lens and the distance f gives its focal length. A lens has two foci, F and, on either side of it by the sign convention. BC_{1} = R _{1} CD_{2} = −R _{2} Therefore, equation (iv) can be written as Equation (v) is known as the lens maker’s formula. From equations (iii) and (iv), we obtain As B and D both are close to the optical centre of the lens, BO = − u, DI = + v, we obtain Equation (vii) is known as thin lens formula. Posted by Sanjeev A.r(student)on 15/2/12

Refraction by a Lens Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure (c) The above figure shows the image formation by a convex lens. Assumptions made in the derivation: The lens is thin so that distances measured from the poles of its surfaces can be taken as equal to the distances from the optical centre of the lens. The aperture of the lens is small. The object consists only of a point lying on the principle axis of the lens. The incident ray and refracted ray make small angles with the principle axis of the lens. A convex lens is made up of two convex spherical refracting surfaces. The first refracting surface forms image I of the object O [figure (b)]. Image I_{1} acts as virtual object for the second surface that forms the image at I [figure (c)]. Applying the equation for spherical refracting surface to the first interface ABC, we obtain A similar procedure applied to the second interface ADC gives For a thin lens, BI_{1} = DI_{1} Adding equations (i) and (ii), we obtain Suppose the object is at infinity i.e., OB → ∞ and DI → f Equation (iii) gives The point where image of an object placed at infinity is formed is called the focus (F) of the lens and the distance f gives its focal length. A lens has two foci, F and, on either side of it by the sign convention. BC_{1} = R _{1} CD_{2} = −R _{2} Therefore, equation (iv) can be written as Equation (v) is known as the lens maker’s formula. From equations (iii) and (iv), we obtain As B and D both are close to the optical centre of the lens, BO = − u, DI = + v, we obtain Equation (vii) is known as thin lens formula. Posted by Sanjeev A.r(student)on 15/2/12

Refraction by a Lens Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure (c) The above figure shows the image formation by a convex lens. Assumptions made in the derivation: The lens is thin so that distances measured from the poles of its surfaces can be taken as equal to the distances from the optical centre of the lens. The aperture of the lens is small. The object consists only of a point lying on the principle axis of the lens. The incident ray and refracted ray make small angles with the principle axis of the lens. A convex lens is made up of two convex spherical refracting surfaces. The first refracting surface forms image I of the object O [figure (b)]. Image I_{1} acts as virtual object for the second surface that forms the image at I [figure (c)]. Applying the equation for spherical refracting surface to the first interface ABC, we obtain A similar procedure applied to the second interface ADC gives For a thin lens, BI_{1} = DI_{1} Adding equations (i) and (ii), we obtain Suppose the object is at infinity i.e., OB → ∞ and DI → f Equation (iii) gives The point where image of an object placed at infinity is formed is called the focus (F) of the lens and the distance f gives its focal length. A lens has two foci, F and, on either side of it by the sign convention. BC_{1} = R _{1} CD_{2} = −R _{2} Therefore, equation (iv) can be written as Equation (v) is known as the lens maker’s formula. From equations (iii) and (iv), we obtain As B and D both are close to the optical centre of the lens, BO = − u, DI = + v, we obtain Equation (vii) is known as thin lens formula. Posted by Sanjeev A.r(student)on 15/2/12

It is the lens maker's formula where lens is the convex lens in this case. We have taken the convex lens to prove this formula and make sure that these are very thin lenses. Lence is a non-existent word. Posted by Aeross(student)on 16/11/13

It is the lens maker's formula where lens is the convex lens in this case. We have taken the convex lens to prove this formula and make sure that these are very thin lenses. Lence is a non-existent word. Posted by Aeross(student)on 16/11/13

It is the lens maker's formula where lens is the convex lens in this case. We have taken the convex lens to prove this formula and make sure that these are very thin lenses. Lence is a non-existent word. Posted by Aeross(student)on 16/11/13