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Rohit Jaiswal from DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, asked a question
Subject: Science , asked on 2/3/12

drawbacks of jj thomson 's atomic model?

drawbacks of neil bohr 's model?

EXPERT ANSWER

Chandra Prakash , Meritnation Expert added an answer, on 3/3/12
191 helpful votes in Science

Drawback of J.J Thomson atomic model:

  1. -  Applicable to one electron system
  2. -  Did not explain the atomic emission spectra
  3. -  Did not explain the position of neutron.

 

Drawback of Neil Bohr’s Model:

  1. -  The model was applicable for one electron system
  2. -  When the high energy band was exposed in the external magnetic field, it split into fine spectral lines which were first observed by Zeeman therefore called Zeeman Effect. The same effect was seen in electric field by Stark which was called Stark effect.

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Sakshi From Delhi Public School, added an answer, on 2/3/12
18 helpful votes in Science

According to this model, an atom can be considered as a sphere of uniformly distributed positive charge in which there are electrons distributed symmetrically. The electrons must be held by the positive charges by electrostatic forces. The mutual repulsions between the electrons are balanced by the force of attraction towards the centre of the sphere. In an atom with a single electron like the hydrogen atom, the electron must be situated at the centre of the positive sphere. In an atom with two electrons, like the helium atom, the two electrons must be symmetrically situated on opposite sides of the centre at a distance equal to half the radius of the positive sphere. In the three-electron system, the electrons should be at the corners of a symmetrically placed equilateral triangle, the side of which is equal to the radius of the sphere. Proceeding in this manner, Thomson could explain the arrangement of electrons ranging from 1 to 100 inside the positive sphere. This model was also called 'the plum pudding model '. The electrons are like plums in a pudding (positive charge). The seeds in a watermelon fruit can be given as a parallel comparison....

With this model he tried to explain the observed spectra of elements. According to him, the vibrations of electrons would give rise to electromagnetic energy radiated. He could explain with some success the process like chemical reaction, radioactivity etc. ..

some of the drawbacks of thompson 's model of atom were :
(1)Since the weight of an electron is about a thousandth part of a hydrogen atom, it would mean that a single atom, especially of the heavier elements, would contain many thousand electrons. But J.J. Thomson himself found that the number of electrons in an atom cannot be greatly different from the atomic weight. ...
(2)According to this model, hydrogen can give rise to only one spectral line, contrary to the observed fact of several lines.
(3)This model could not explain the large angle scattering of alpha particles by thin metal foils.

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