Ocean currents: keep parts of the world warmer than they would otherwise be, eg UK has a climate similar to some mediterranean countries, but by latitude should share one with Moscow or Alaska. this is caused by the gulf stream, which carries tropical water right to the UK.
elevation: Obvious. the higher you go, the colder it gets. Less oxygen in the air affects vegetation, being in the rain shadow of mountains causes relief rain (the mosoons are caused when air rises to go over the himalayas, and is carrying lots of water, as it rises it cools and so cant carry the water so it rains)
latitude, location: the further from the equator you get, the colder it is, because the suns rays strike the earth less directly and so have less warming effect because of the angle the planet is on
near water: ater has a high specific heat capacity (shc) compared to land. this means water can absorb a lot of evergy without showing a very big temperature change, but lang, with a lower shc cant. The reverse is also true. So islands and areas surrounded by water show less varations in their temperature over ythe course of the year (and day to night) than continental places)
wind: wind reduces the ability fo a place to support life, because it blows away all the soil, nutrients etc needed to start life. eg at the coast, life only starts on the strand line because that provides a little shelter from the wind so plants can grown, and they in trun trap debris to become a bigger wind shelter etc ad nauseum until a huge snad dune with lots of life is formed. But without the wind shelter, it would have just blown away!
other factors: atmosphere (thickness, composition), ozone, shape of land, natural disaster eg volcanoes, people!