explain any three factor affecting the climate of india?
India has a monsoon type of climate and the factors are:
* The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.
* The shift of the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over the Ganga plain (this is the equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the equator – also known as the monsoon- trough during the monsoon season).
* The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high-pressure area affects the Indian Monsoon.
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Almost half of the counry , lying south of the Tropic of Cancer belongs to the tropical area . All the remaining area, north of the Tropics, lies in the sub- tropics.Therefore, indias climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.
India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 metres. Induia also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 metres .
Pressure and winds
Inida lies in the region of north easterly winds.These winds originate from the subtropical high - pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. They blow south, get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force, and move on towards the equatorial low - pressure area.Generally these winds carry ver little moisture as they originate and blow over land.
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Ocean currents: keep parts of the world warmer than they would otherwise be, eg UK has a climate similar to some mediterranean countries, but by latitude should share one with Moscow or Alaska. this is caused by the gulf stream, which carries tropical water right to the UK.
elevation: Obvious. the higher you go, the colder it gets. Less oxygen in the air affects vegetation, being in the rain shadow of mountains causes relief rain (the mosoons are caused when air rises to go over the himalayas, and is carrying lots of water, as it rises it cools and so cant carry the water so it rains)
latitude, location: the further from the equator you get, the colder it is, because the suns rays strike the earth less directly and so have less warming effect because of the angle the planet is on
near water: ater has a high specific heat capacity (shc) compared to land. this means water can absorb a lot of evergy without showing a very big temperature change, but lang, with a lower shc cant. The reverse is also true. So islands and areas surrounded by water show less varations in their temperature over ythe course of the year (and day to night) than continental places)
wind: wind reduces the ability fo a place to support life, because it blows away all the soil, nutrients etc needed to start life. eg at the coast, life only starts on the strand line because that provides a little shelter from the wind so plants can grown, and they in trun trap debris to become a bigger wind shelter etc ad nauseum until a huge snad dune with lots of life is formed. But without the wind shelter, it would have just blown away!
other factors: atmosphere (thickness, composition), ozone, shape of land, natural disaster eg volcanoes, people!
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