Short note on Jyotirao Phule
jyoti rao phule was a great reformer he was the founder of sayashodak samaj. he raised his voise against the bramans who claimed that they were the superior than others. according to jyoti rao phule brahmans were the aryans who came from other subcontinent . they defeated the true children of the country and looked upon them as inferior as low caste people . phule raised his voise upon that the aryans has no right on their lands .
phule in 1873 wrote extensively about the issues black slaves of USA .he wrote the book the book beacaus he was a great personality and his voise abot caste prejudices. the american cold war almostin1880 led in the end of black slavs in america. phule dedicated his book to all thse americans who had fought to become free.thus phule had established a connection between black slaves in USA and low castes people in INDIA
Mahatma Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (Marathi: जोतिराव गोविंदराव फुले) (11 April 1827 – 28 November 1890), also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an activist, thinker, social reformer, writer, philosopher, theologist, scholar, editor and revolutionary from Maharashtra, India in the nineteenth century. Jotiba Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule were pioneers of women's education in India. His remarkable influence was apparent in fields like education, agriculture, caste system, women and widow upliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known for his efforts to educate women and the lower castes as well as the masses. He, after educating his wife, opened first a school for girls in India in August 1848. In September 1873, Jotirao, along with his followers, formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) with the main objective of liberating the Bahujans, Shudras and Ati-Shudras and protecting them from exploitation and atrocities. For his fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste and his contributions to the field of education, he is regarded as one of the most important figures of the Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra. Dhananjay Keer, his biographer, notes him as "the father of Indian social revolution".
Jyotirao Phule claimed that the lower castes were the true children of the land known as India. According to him, the Brahmins—who traced their genealogy back to the Aryans—were outsiders. The upper castes had therefore no right to their land and power.He founded the Satyashodak sabha, which propagated caste equality.
In 1873, Phule wrote a book named Gulamgiri, meaning slavery. Some ten years before this, the American Civil War had been fought, leading to the end of slavery in A merica. Phule discovered his book to allthose Americans who had fought to free slaves, thus establishing a link between the conditions of the "lower" castes in India and the black slaves in America.
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A radical and liberal thinker who received his early education in a Mission School, Mahatma Phule worked for the uplift of the low castes. He authored the Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak that emphasised equality of all men and called for equality before the law and equality of opportunity. He agreed that the British rule had ushered in a general improvement in the condition of the masses. English education had made the depressed classes aware of their rights and inspired thoughts of overcoming domination by the high castes. But he criticised the British administration for its many injustices including diversion of funds meant for higher education purposes.
Phule regarded the Hindu tradition as one dominated by brahmin thought and culture. He condemned the Prarthana Samaj and the Sarvajanik Sabha as organisations concerned with the cause of the brahmins alone. He aimed at replacing the Hindu religion with the 'Sarvajanik Ishwar Pranit Satya'. In 1873, he founded the Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth Seekers' Society), the leadership of which came from the backward classes. The Samaj aimed at spreading education among women and lower caste people.
Jyotirao Govindrao Phule was born into a poor and virtually illiterate family that belonged to the Mali caste of gardeners and vegetable farmers. The original surname of the family had been Gorham , and they hailed from Katgun, a village in Khatav taluka of Satara District (now in Maharashtra state). Phule's grandfather, Shetiba Gorhay, had settled in Pune and prospered after starting a business of selling flowers, garlands and flower arrangements for religious and social events like weddings. The family owned some farmland as well as a shop in the city. Since Phule's father and two uncles served as florists under the last of the Peshwas, whose patronage they enjoyed, the family came to be known as 'Phule' (flower-man)
Phule's father, Govindrao, carried on the family business along with his brothers. His mother, Chimnabai, died when he was only nine months old, and he had one elder brother. The Mali community did not set many stores by education, and after attending primary school to learn the basics of reading, writing , and arithmetic, Phule was withdrawn from school. He joined the menfolk of his family at work, both in the shop and the farm. However, a Christian convert from the same Mali caste as Phule recognized his intelligence and persuaded Phule's father to allow Phule to attend the local Scottish Mission's High School run by Murray Mitchell. Jyotirao completed his English schooling in in 1847. As per custom, he was married young, at the age of 13, to a girl of his own community, chosen by his father.
The turning point in his life was in 1848 when he attended the wedding of a friend, who was a Brahmin. Phule participated in the customary marriage procession but was later rebuked and insulted by his friend's parents for doing that. They told him that he being from a lower caste should have had the sense to keep away from that ceremony. This incident profoundly affected Phule on the injustice of the caste system. In the same year , he also visited the first girls' school in Ahmadnagar run by Christian missionaries. It was also in 1848 that Young Jyotiba read Thomas Paine's book Rights of Man (1791), and developed a keen sense of social justice. He realized that "lower castes" and women were at a disadvantage in Indian society, and also that education of these sections was vital to their emancipation.
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