The by products of the fertilizer industries are :-
a) Gases- SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, H2S
b) Solids- Pyrite ashes, Calcium Carbonate, sand and plastic bag.
Effect on Environment
The majority of the gaseous by products like carbon dioxide, methane are green house gases which contribute to global warming. Rest of the gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide are air pollutants and lead to acid rain. These gaseous by products cause breathing and respiratory problem.
The solid waste and waste water discharges into the water body. When these wastes are discharged in the water body they increase the nutrient content of the water and cause algal bloom (increase in number of algae). Due to algal bloom, algae forms a layer on the surface of the water and hence the oxygen does not reach the water body and all the fishes and water animals are killed.