what are the by-products of fertilizer industries? how do they affect the environment?
The by products of the fertilizer industries are :-
a) Gases- SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, H2S
b) Solids- Pyrite ashes, Calcium Carbonate, sand and plastic bag.
Effect on Environment
The majority of the gaseous by products like carbon dioxide, methane are green house gases which contribute to global warming. Rest of the gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide are air pollutants and lead to acid rain. These gaseous by products cause breathing and respiratory problem.
The solid waste and waste water discharges into the water body. When these wastes are discharged in the water body they increase the nutrient content of the water and cause algal bloom (increase in number of algae). Due to algal bloom, algae forms a layer on the surface of the water and hence the oxygen does not reach the water body and all the fishes and water animals are killed.
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Fertilizer amount and type in a soil environment can have profound impacts on types and number of microorganisms.
1. Use of inorganic fertilizers can rapidly and drastically change soil pH and EC (electrical conductivity) as well as salt levels in soil that can kill sensitive organisms.
2. Some microorganisms that form symbioses with leguminous plant roots will die or reduce in count dramatically if exogenous nitrogen is applied. Cut the N-fertilization, and the populations climb back.
3. Application of composts and other organic sources of fertilizer can have the opposite effect of inorganics (on microorganism populations). Integration of organic matter into soils will BOOST microorganism populations both fungal, bacterial and protists.