Khilafat movement: Khilafat movement was a movement against the breach of faith by the British. The British had promised to recognise the Ottoman emperor as the Khalifa or the spiritual and temporal head of the Islamic world, in lieu of the support of the Indian Muslims towards the British War efforts. But post war, they breached the promise and dismantled the Khalifa. This had agitated the Muslim intelligentsia. Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Abdul Kalam Azad and sections of ulama particularly fiom Firangi Mahal, Lucknow, were at this time engaged in the Khilafat agitation.
Non-cooperation movement: Cemented by the sufferings of Jallianwala Bagh tragedy, Khilafat Issue and the Rowlatt act coupled with the success in the regional Satyagrah movements in Ahmedabad, Champaran and Kheda, the non cooperation movement was the first mass upheaval in India. It spanned between September 1920 to 1922.