what is castner and kellner 's cell for manufacture of naoh
|Castner - Kellner Cell|
An electrolytic cell used industrially for the production of sodium hydroxide. The usually iron cell is filled with brine (sodium chloride solution) and employs liquid mercury as the cathode.
The sodium liberated there forms an amalgam with the mercury, which is run off and reacted with water to give sodium hydroxide (and hydrogen); the mercury is then re-used. Chlorine gas produced at the anode is another valuable by-product.
Caustic Soda Or NaOH (Castner Kellner 's Process)
Caustic Soda or Sodium Hydroxide is one of the most important chemicals of industrial use. Caustic Soda must be handled carefully because it is caustic to touch and causes painful burns.
Castner Kellner 's Process
Caustic Soda is manufacture by an electrolytic process. This process is carried out in an electrolytic cell known as Castner-Kellner 's cell and the process is called Castner-Kellner 's Process.
Construction Of Castner-Kellner 's Cell :
The electrolytic solution is a 25% of NaCl solution. The anode consist of a number of titanium plates whereas cathode is a steam of flowing mercury.
Diagram Coming Soon
Working of Castner-Kellner 's Cell
Sodium chloride dissociates in water to give Na+ and Cl- ions are
2NaCl ----> 2Na+ + 2Cl-
The Cl- ions migrate towards titanium plates, it gains electron and convert into chlorine gas.
2Cl- ----> Cl2 + 2e- (Oxidation)
In castner-kellner 's process, H+ ions are not easily discharged due to high voltage of H+ ions, on the contrary Na+ ions are easily discharge over mercury surface. The sodium, thus liberated dissolves in mercury forming an amalgam.
2Na+ + 2e- ----> 2Na (Reduction)
Na + Hg ----> Na/Hg (Amalgum) '
The mercury containing dissolved sodium is sent to another chamber called Denuder where sodium reacts with water forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. Denuder is packed with graphite blocks as hydrogen is easily liberated over graphite surface.
2Na/Hg + 2H2O ----> 2NaOH + H2 + 2Hg
The mercury is recycled to dissolve more of sodium.
The solution, which flows out from denuder, is a NaOH solution, which is evaporated to dryness
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jahhpg;G Kiw Sodium hydroxide
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