what is hardy schulze's rule?
Hardy schulze’s rule states that “greater the valency of the active ion or flocculating ion, greater will be its coagulating power”.
That is, the coagulation capacity of different electrolytes depends upon the valency of the flocculating ion (the ion carrying charge opposite to the charge on the colloidal particles).
Hardy Schulze law says that,
(i) The effective ions of the electrolyte in bringing about coagulation are those which carry charge opposite to that of the colloidal particles. These ions are called coagulating ions or flocculating ions.
(ii) Greater is the valency of the coagulating or the flocculating ion, greater is its power to bring about coagulation.
For example, the coagulation of negatively charged arsenious sulfide sol, trivalent cations (Al3+) are far more effective than divalent (Ba2+) cations which in turn are more effective than monovalent Na+ cations.
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Hardy Schulze Law States That
(A) A Negative Ion Causes The Precipitation Of The Positively Charged Sol And Vice Versa.
(B) Greater The Charge On The Ion Greater Will Be The Coagulation.
Hardy Schulze Rule:
Thus, Hardy Schulze law state:
(i) The ions carrying the charge opposite to that of sol particles are effective in causing coagulation of the sol.
(ii) Coagulating power of an electrolyte is directly proportional to the valency of the active ions (ions causing coagulation).
For example :
To coagulate negative sol of As2S3, the coagulation power of different cations has been found to decrease in the order as, Al3+ Mg2+ Na+
Similarly, to coagulate a positive sol such as Fe(OH)3, the coagulating power of different anions has been found to decrease in the order : [Fe(CN)6]4 PO4 3 SO4 2 Cl