What is Inert pair effect ? Explain in detail with examples... :]
it is the tendency of the outermost electrons to remain unionised and unshared of post transitions metals.The term is often used in relation to the increasing stability of oxidation state that are 2 less than the group valency for the heavier elements of groups 13,14,15 nd 16 .
for example: 1) In 3rd A group, thallium can exhibit +1 and+3 oxidation states but it is stable in +1 oxidation state only due to inert pair effect 2) In 4th A group , lead shows both +2 and +4 oxidation states but it is stable in +2 oxidation state due to inert pair effect
hope this answer will help u
sorry by my mistake i put one extra effect in last sentence....plz don 't mind that....
it is the reluctance of s orbital to take part in bonding
the inertness of inner ns electrons to chemical bonding is called inert pair effect which happens due to -
on moving down a group electrons are added to the d and f orbital.....these orbitals due to their shape have a poor shielding effect and hence nuclear charge increses....so the inner electrons show inertity and do not take part in bonding.....
1. in group 13 where group oxidation state is +3(sum of outer s and p electrons)..on moving down the group due to inert pair effect elements like thalium and indium have +1 as more stable oxidation state....
2.similarly in group 14 where group oxidation state is 4, element Pb has +2 as stable oxidation state again due to inert pair effect .
hope u got it.....
Group 13 elements have ns2np1 electronic configuration. Hence they would be expected to be trivalent. In most of their compounds this is the case, however for the heavy elements lower oxidation states are more stable. This is explained by the s electrons remaining paired and not participating in bond formation. This inertness of s-subshell electrons towards the bond formation is called inert pair effect. This happens because the s orbitals are held closer to the nucleus, therefore the electrons present in s orbitals are held strongly by nucleus because of large electrostatic forces. Hence the energy required to unpair the s-electrons is high because of which they remain paired.
1) In 13th group, thallium can exhibit +1 and+3 oxidation states but it is stable in +1 oxidation state only due to inert pair effect
2) In 14th group , lead shows both +2 and +4 oxidation states but it is stable in +2 oxidation state due to inert pair effect.
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