when is an electric dipole in stable and unstable equillibrium in an electric field ?
When the angle between the dipole moment vector and the electric field vector is 0, then the torque acting on the dipole (cross product of dipole moment vector and electric field vector) is 0. Hence, the dipole will be in a stable equilibrium.
If the angle angle between the dipole moment vector and the electric field vector is not zero, then the dipole will experience a torque and will rotate. Hence, the dipole will be in a unstable equilibrium.
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