some words with silent letters. Learn their spelling. Your teacher
will dictate these words to you. Write them down and underline the
1. The Narrative Present
Notice the incomplete sentences in the following paragraphs. Here the writer is using incomplete sentences in the narration to make the incident more dramatic or immediate. Can you rewrite the paragraph in complete sentences?
(You can begin: The vet and I made a dash back to the car. Bruno was still floundering…)
(i) A dash back to car. Bruno still floundering about on his stumps, but clearly weakening rapidly; some vomiting, heavy breathing, with heaving flanks and gaping mouth.
Hold him everybody! In goes the hypodermic – Bruno squeals – 10 c.c. of the antidote enters his system without a drop being wasted. Then minutes later: condition unchanged! Another 10 c.c. injected! Ten minutes later: breathing less stertorous – Bruno can move his arms and legs a little although he can not stand yet. Thirty minutes later: Bruno gets up and has a great feed! He looks at us disdainfully, as much as to say, ‘What’s barium carbonate to a big black bear like me?’ Bruno is still eating.
(ii) In the paragraphs above from the story the verbs are in the present tense (eg. hold, goes, etc.). This gives the reader an impression of immediacy. The present tense is often used when we give a commentary on a game (cricket, football, etc.), or tell a story as if it is happening now. It is, therefore, called the narrative present.
You will read more about the present tense in Unit 10
Find the adverbs in the passage below. (You’ve read about adverbs in Unit 1.)
We thought that everything was over when suddenly a black sloth bear came out panting in the hot sun. Now I will not shoot a sloth-bear wantonly but, unfortunately for the poor beast, one of my companions did not feel that way about it, and promptly shot the bear on the spot.
(i) Complete the following sentences, using a suitable adverb ending in –ly.
(a) Rana does her homework _______________.
(b) It rains ___________ in Mumbai in June.
(c) He does his work _____________.
(d) The dog serves his master _____________.
(ii) Choose the most suitable adverbs or adverbial phrases and complete the following sentences.
(a) We should ____________get down from a moving train. (never, sometimes, often)
(b) I was ___________ in need of support after my poor performance. (badly, occasionally, sometimes).
(c) Rita met with an accident. The doctor examined her ______________. (suddenly, seriously, immediately)
3. Take down the following scrambled version of a story, that your teacher will dictate to you, with appropriate punctuation marks. Then, read the scrambled story carefully and try to rewrite it rearranging the incidents.
A grasshopper, who was very hungry, saw her and said, “When did you get the corn? I am dying of hunger.” She wanted to dry them. It was a cold winter’s day, and an ant was bringing out some grains of corn from her home. She had gathered the corn in summer.
“I was singing all day,” answered the grasshopper.
“If you sang all summer,” said the ant, “you can dance all winter.”
“What were you doing?” asked the ant again.
The grasshopper replied, “I was too busy.”
“I collected it in summer,” said the ant. “What were you doing in summer? Why did you not store some corn?”
How to look at an Index
An index is a list of names or topics that are to be found in a book. It is a list arranged in alphabetical order at the end of a book.
The following paragraph shows that the doctor is consulting the index of a medical book to find out which injection is appropriate for Bruno.
“Out came his medical books, and a feverish reference to index began:
What poison did you say, sir?” “Barium carbonate”. “Ah yes—B—Ba—Barium Salts—Ah! Barium carbonate! Symptoms—paralysis—treatment—injections of ... Just a minute, sir. I’ll bring my syringe and
1. You have read about the French Revolution and you want to know more about the Third Estate in the context of the French Revolution. You can refer to the index of the book Living World History by T. Walter Wallbank and Arnold Schrier:
On which pages in this book will you find information about the French Revolution and the Third Estate?
2. To know what ‘Food Security’ and ‘Minimum Support Price’ mean in the context of the economic growth of a country you can go to the subject index given below from Poverty and Famines — An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation by Amartya Sen. Under which heading in the index are you likely to find these topics?
3. Given below is a portion of an index page from the book, French’s Index of Differential Diagnosis, edited by F. Dudley Hart M.D., F.R.C.P.
Study the entries and find out whether the following topics are discussed in the book.
(i) bronchitis due to cigarette smoking
(ii) heart failure due to bronchitis
(iii) bronchitis in children
1. Find these words in the lesson. They all have ie or ei in them.
ingred _____ nts
h ____ ght
misch _____ vous
fr ____ nds
rel ____ ved
p ____ ce
2. Now here are some more words. Complete them with ei or ie. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
(There is a popular rule of spelling: ‘i’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’. Check if this rule is true by looking at the words above.)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 words each.
1. On two occasions Bruno ate/drank something that should not be eaten /drunk. What happened to him on these occasions?
2. Was Bruno a loving and playful pet? Why, then, did he have to be sent away?
3. How was the problem of what to do with Bruno finally solved?
Answer the following questions.
1.“I got him for her by accident.”
(i) Who says this?
(ii) Who do ‘him’ and ‘her’ refer to?
(iii) What is the incident referred to here?
2. “He stood on his head in delight.”
(i) Who does ‘he’ refer to?
(ii) Why was he delighted?
3. “We all missed him greatly: but in a sense we were relieved.”
(i) Who does ‘we all’ stand for?
(ii) Who did they miss?
(iii) Why did they nevertheless feel relieved?
Given in the box are some headings. Find the relevant paragraphs in the text to match the headings.
An Orphaned Cub; Bruno’s Food-chart; An Accidental Case of Poisoning; Playful Baba; Pain of Separation; Joy of Reunion; A Request to the Zoo; An Island in the courtyard
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