Subject: English, asked on 1/2/18

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Tourism has emerged as the world's largest industry. Growing rapidly in the last two decades, today it account for 6% of the world output and employees some hundred million people around the globe. Since the end of the Second World . War, it has developed immense revenue and development potential and stands today as a unique natural renewable resource industry.
Tourism - the travel based recreation - provides people change of place and a break from the monotony of daily life. It brings peoples of different nations together, allow them to come into contact with each others customs and other aspects of life. It reveals the scenic beauty and past heritage of a country to people belonging to other Nations. The knowledge and experience gained, in the process lead to greater understanding and tolerance, and can even foster world peace.
The contribution of tourism nowhere scene more clearly then on economic front. A study conducted by united Nations has shown that developing countries, in particular, can reap some benefits out of tourism greatly boosts national income.
Tourism generate employment, and adds to the entrepreneurial wealth of the nation• While tourism's advantages are •many, it's undesirable side effects have raised fresh problems.
Tourism can cause social, cultural or environmental disruption. Of the greatest
concern is its damage to the environment. In order to attract more tourists, sprawling resorts are built which take neither the local architectural styles no the ecology into consideration. Natural systems come to be destroyed as a result indiscriminate construction to provide water and waste disposal facilities an d recreational arrangements to tourists. Overuse of environmental wealth disturb ecological balance

Damage is most in wildlife parks which remain foremost sites of tourist attraction • -Tourist vans and the visitors' feet destroy the ground vegetation, thus affecting the feeding habits of the animals and the landscape as well. Overcrowding brings about congestion, leading to environmental and health hazards.
The Taj Maha!, one of the seven wonders of the world. has suffered a lot of Wear and tear from trampling feet of tourists.
Some Socio-cultural effects of tourism have been damaging. Tourism offers ushers in new life styles; arrangements as desired by tourists are provided in order to make them feel at home. The emergence of this 'other 'culture in various places has caused dissatisfaction among the local people. The concern is that the local people tends to imitate the foreign values breaking away from their own traditions.
TO promote safe tourism while ensuring that it remains a profitable industry, it is imperative to understand the factors that hamper the growth of tourism & check them effectively.
General instability of the nation is damaging to tourism prospects. Political disturbances, in particular, pose a serious problem. The growing violence in the international scene and increasing threat of terrorism affects the flow of tourists. Countries like S Lanka have been a victim to terrorist threats for long and have therefore suffered setbacks in tourism.
Whatever the problems, India must work hard o reap the benefits from this industry, for the country has everything to attract visitors from far and near.



On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only using headings and sub-headings. Also use recognizable. abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum 4). Supply a suitable title to it.


l l. Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

Subject: English, asked on 3/2/18

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (12)
One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator.
Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic, or they can count the number of times the word “and” has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed, they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called ‘automation’. In the future ‘automation’ may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.
Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think’. There is no possibility that human beings will be “controlled by machines”. Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or “rule the world” by making decision of their own.
Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short, for many international misunderstandings are caused simply through our failure to understand each other. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital, by providing a machine with a patient’s systems; a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work, for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers will also be able to tell the exact age a man is going to live, with the help of his blood picture. Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life.
Q.1 What is the greatest advancement in modern technology? (2)
Q.2 Explain Automation? (2)
Q.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future? (2)
Q.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? (2)
Q.5 Give a suitable title to the passage. (1)
Q.6 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for (3)
i) Difficult or complex
ii) Collect or arrange
iii) Another choice

Subject: English, asked on 1/5/15

All living things are made up of cells. Cell is the basic unit of life. Living organisms that are made up of only one cell are called unicellular such as Amoeba, Chlamydomonas, bacteria, etc. Those made up of many cells are called multicellular. A complex multicellular organism is made up of trillions of cells.
All living things require food for growth and development. It also gives them energy for sustaining life processes. For example, plants manufacture their own food by the process of photosynthesis. Such organisms are called autotrophs. Animals, on the other hand, depend on plants and other animals for their food. They are called heterotrophs.
All living things grow. Growth can be easily observed in all plants and animals. Living things either produce new cells or their pre-existing cells increase in size and hence they grow. In animals, growth stops as they reach their adult stage while the plants keep on growing throughout their life.
All living things respire. Respiration is a process that includes breathing. The movement of air in and out of the body and vice-versa is known as breathing.
For example, animals such as earthworms breathe through their skin; fish use gills for breathing; and plants exchange gases through tiny pores called stomata, which are present mainly on the surface of leaves. Respiration is a two stage process. It has two stages:
External respiration − This is the process of breathing i.e., taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide.
Internal respiration − In this stage, oxygen taken in is utilised to produce energy.
All living organisms respond to stimuli.
Do you know what stimulus is?

Stimuli are certain changes in the surroundings that cause an organism to respond to them. For example, animals such as cockroaches hide as soon as the light is switched on.

Plants such as Mimosa pudica (touch-me-not) close their leaves when touched.

Let us now perform the following activity to understand how plants respond to stimuli.

Take a potted plant and keep it in a room at a slight distance from the window. Sunlight must enter through the window during the day time. Water this plant regularly for a few days.



You will observe that the stem of the plant bends towards the sunlight.

This proves that living organisms react to stimuli.

All living organisms excrete.
What is excretion?

A part of the food we eat is utilised by the body while the rest is removed from the body.

The process of getting rid of waste materials from the body is known as excretion. This process occurs in both plants and animals. In animals, waste products such as urea are excreted in urine; and carbon dioxide, which is also a waste product, is excreted by lungs. In plants, the wastes are converted into harmless substances such as gum, resins, etc.

All living organisms reproduce. Some animals produce eggs while others give birth to young ones. Plants, on the other hand, reproduce by producing spores or seeds.
Do you know?

Mammals such as humans, cats, dogs etc., which give birth to young ones, are called viviparous animals.
Animals such as hens, crocodiles, insects, etc., which produce eggs, are called oviparous animals.
All living organisms can move. It should be noted that all living organisms can move. While animals can move from one place to another with the help of special locomotory organs such as limbs, plants show movement in the form of movement of root towards earth, bending of flowers in sunflower plant towards light, etc. The energy for movement comes from within the organism.
All living organisms have a definite life span. All organisms have a definite life span. Organisms are born; they grow, and finally die. Some organisms have a short life span such as bacteria that live for only 20 to 25 minutes while some organisms have a longer life span such as tortoise that live up to 150 years.
We can now distinguish between living and non-living things.

Living things

Non-living things

They are made up of cells. They are not made up of cells.
They show movement, but the energy for movement comes from within the organism. They show movement by taking external force or energy.
They require food. They do not require food.
Growth in them is irreversible. Growth is reversible.
Respiration occurs in them for oxidising food to release energy. They do not require respiration.
Reproduction occurs in living things. Non-living things do not reproduce.
Differences between plants and animals

Plants

Animals

They can make their own food by the process of photosynthesis. They are autotrophs. They cannot make their own food. They are heterotrophs.
They show movement, but cannot show locomotion i.e., they cannot change their position from one place to another. They show movement as well as locomotion.
They show response to stimuli, but lack sense organs. They also show response to stimuli and have well-developed sense organs.
They grow throughout their life. They stop growing once they reach their adult form.

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