1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (12)
One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator.
Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic, or they can count the number of times the word “and” has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed, they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called ‘automation’. In the future ‘automation’ may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.
Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think’. There is no possibility that human beings will be “controlled by machines”. Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or “rule the world” by making decision of their own.
Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short, for many international misunderstandings are caused simply through our failure to understand each other. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital, by providing a machine with a patient’s systems; a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work, for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers will also be able to tell the exact age a man is going to live, with the help of his blood picture. Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life.
Q.1 What is the greatest advancement in modern technology? (2)
Q.2 Explain Automation? (2)
Q.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future? (2)
Q.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? (2)
Q.5 Give a suitable title to the passage. (1)
Q.6 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for (3)
i) Difficult or complex
ii) Collect or arrange
iii) Another choice
- The invention of computer is the greatest advancement in modern technology.
- Automation is the process of collecting informations and data using a machine such as a computer.
- The prediction by Sir Leon about computers was that it would be small enough to be carried in the pocket.
- Computers can be used effectively in national network, radios, metrology, navigation, hospitals, libraries and clerical work.
- The birth and the benefits of Computers
- (i) complicated (ii) compiling (iii) alternative