1) wht is a periscope? state its working principle.

2) hw does ciliary muscle work

3) why does it tk sometime 2 see things in a dimly lit room whn we entr it frm a brightly lit area

pls experts fast

Ciliary muscles are the are the circular sheet of smooth muscle fibres that form bundles of circular and radial muscles which alter the shape of lens during accomodation.

Iris is the circular muscular diaphragm containing the pigment which gives the eye its color. It controls the amount of light entering the eye.


It takes some time because the pupils in our eyes need to adjust to the amount of light by expanding or contracting. Now, when we enter a dimly lit room, the pupils expand to allow maximum light which takes a few seconds for us to accomodate to.

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A periscope is an optical device which allows an observer to see things which are beyond his or her line of sight. One of the classical uses of a periscope is in submarines. Instead of needing to surface to see what is going on at sea level, the submarine can instead stay safely submerged under the water and extend a periscope to look around. Periscopes are widely used in the military, but also in other fields, such as medicine and hunting.

Several crude versions of the periscope were used as far back as the 1400s, but the modern design was developed in the late 1800s, when the obvious military applications of the periscope began to be realized. By World War One, periscopes were standard issue to many troops in the trenches, and they were also utilized in submarine warfare.

Periscopes consist of a long tube which contains either mirrors or prisms. The mirror or prismat one end captures the image and bends or reflects it so that it can travel down the tube to hit the mirror or prism at the other side, bending the image again so that it can meet the eye of the viewer. If the tube is extremely long, magnifying glasses may be used to enlarge it so that the viewer can see clearly. Periscopes can be portable, as in the case of the trenchperiscopes used in the First World War, or they can be fixed into a housing such as a tank or submarine.


People can use a periscope to see above their current location, allowing them to stay concealed and protected behind armor or a wall, and periscopes can also be used to look underground and around corners. The device may be camouflaged so that it will not be readily visible to observers in the distance, ensuring that the position of the viewer will not be given away by the appearance of the periscope.

The science behind the periscope is fairly simple, and children being introduced to basic optics are sometimes encouraged to construct periscopes to experiment with the principles. Periscopes can also be immensely useful aids to some children's games, such as play in which children want to be able to observe a situation while remaining hidden.

Optics stores sometimes carry periscopes or kits which can be used to make them, and specialized versions are also available from medical suppliers and stores which cater to hunters. Although the periscope is famous for its use on submarines, most navies today actually prefer to use other imaging devices, and the cry “up periscope” is rarely heard, except in the movies.

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Periscope is a device used to see the far objects. It is used in submarines to see the things on the surface. It works on the principle of  multiple images formed by the plane mirror.

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