1.Write down the functions of Oestrogen and progesterone?
2.How are twins born?

3.State the differences between endocrine and exocrine glands?

4.How does the insulin regulate the blood sugar level?

5.Name the harmone responsible for dwarfism?

6.What is menarche?

1- Estrogen- It is a hormone produced in females by ovaries.

 Functions of estrogen:-

  •  It brings about the secondary sexual characters. 
  •  Growth and functioning of the female secondary sex organs

Progesterone-This hormone is also produced by ovary.

 Functions of progesterone:-

  •   Acts on mammary glands and stimulates formation of alveoli-like structures storing milk
  •  Milk secretion


The birth of twins is not a normal process. In normal process of fertilization, male gamete fuses with female gamete and gives rise to a single diploid zygote. This zygote later on undergoes divisions and develops into an embryo. When this normal process undergoes some alterations then it results in the formation of twins. These altered conditions or different types of twins can be summerised as mentioned below:

 Fraternal twins - Generally, only one ovum is released by the female per month but sometimes release of two ova might take place. The two ova/eggs are fertilized by two separate sperms and give rise to two zygote. Both of these zygotes undergo implantation and develop into embryos. Such twins are called fraternal or dizygotic twins. 

Identical twins- One egg is fertilized by one sperm thereby giving rise to one zygote. This zygote is then split into two. Both of these cells develop into embryos . Such twins are the called identical or monozygotic twins.

3) Endocrine & exocrine gland

4) Insulin-The pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin, which regulates the blood sugar level in the human body.

When you consume a carbohydrate-rich diet, it is broken down and converted into glucose. The glucose is then absorbed by the blood. This results in the increase of blood-sugar level and leads to the stimulation of the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin stimulates the target cells to take up the extra glucose from the blood.

5) Dwarfism is caused due to deficiency of growth hormone

6) Menarche-The commencement of menstruation at puberty is termed as menarche. It marks the beginning of reproductive life of a women.

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