17. What is judicial review?
18. What is public interest litigation?
19. How does judiciary act as a guardian of fundamental rights?

Dear student,
17) Judicial review is the judiciary reviews the actions of  legislative and executive .The courts with judicial review power annul the acts of the state when it finds them incompatible with the terms of a written constitution.

18) Public litigation system or public interest litigation is litigation for public interest i.e., it is a case filed in the interest of the public by a representative of the public. PIL was started to protect the fundamental rights of people who are poor, ignorant or in socially/economically disadvantaged position. It is different from ordinary litigation, in that it is not filed by one private person against another for the enforcement of a personal right. The presence of 'public interest' is important to file a PIL. The first reported case of PIL in 1979 focused on the inhuman conditions of prisons and under trial prisoners.

19) Judiciary is the supreme guardian of our Fundamental Rights. Article 32 , that is Right to constitutional Remedies allows individual to challenge any law of the central or state government or any policy decision of the executive if it violates our fundamental rights.

a. In such case, the Supreme Court or the high court has the power to issue writs, which is their prerogative. It is the written formal document an order or a direction issued by for the enforcement of fundamental rights. They are issued by the Supreme Court or the High Court.They are issued by the higher authority to the lower authority to follow a particular course of action.

b. The Judiciary is the watchdog of our Democracy. It prevents the misuse of power by the government or by any official if it violates the fundamental rights of the people.

c. The power of the Judicial review where the Judiciary interprets the constitution and can declare any law of the parliament or any action of the executive null or void if it goes takes away or limits the Fundamental rights of the citizens.

d. Judiciary can also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators.

e. Under Public Interest Litigation (PIL), any citizen or group of citizens can approach the Supreme Court or a High Court for the protection of public interest against a particular law or action.  

Hope this information will clear your doubts about topic.

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