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Please find below the answer:

Neurulation is the process that results in the formation of a neural tube. It refers to the folding process in the embryos of vetebrates, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube. The embryo at this stage is called neurula.

The process begins when the notochord signals the ectoderm germ layer above it to form the thick and flat neural plate. This neural plate folds in upon itself to form the neural tube which later differentiates into the spinal cord and the brain. The process results in the formation of the central nervous system.

In different species, different portions of the neural tube follow different processes, known as primary and secondary neurulation.

  • In primary neurulation, the neural plate curves inward until the edges come in contact and fuse with each other.
  • In secondary neurulation, the tube forms when a hole develops in the interior of a solid precursor.
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