Define Scientific Management. State any three of its principles.

The term 'Scientific management' was developed by Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) in 1911. It refers to the classical outlook of management which focussed on devising the best ways of doing the work and thereby increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of work. Scientific management implies working according to standardised techniques and tools and with the help of specialised personnel so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and the same time reducing the costs. Scientific management is also known as Taylorism.

The Following are three principles of scientific management.

i. Harmony, Not Discord: According to this principle, the managers and the workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise that they are dependent on each other. Only if they work in amity, will they be able to perform better. Taylor emphasised on complete mental revolution. That is, the workers should change their attitude and each one should realise others importance. Management should take care of the needs of the workers and workers on the other hand should work to their best efficiency. Both should work in harmony towards the common goals of the organisation. 

ii. Science, Not Rule of Thumb: According to Taylor, instead of rule of thumb scientific management practices should be followed. Under the rule of thumb, each manger handles a situation as and when they arise. They used the trial and error method to find solutions to a problem. Taylor proposed that instead of this management practices should be scientific. He suggested that a study of various traditional methods should be done and the best method/solution among them should be adopted and followed by all the managers in the organisation. Such a scientific management greatly reduces the costs and improves efficiency. 

iii. Personnel Development: Overall efficiency of the organisation depends on the individual competencies of the employees. Scientific management aimed at improving the working capabilities of the employees to their maximum level. It focussed on the training and development of the labourers to raise their productivity.

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