describe all modals with examples and functions.

Modal
Example
Uses
CanThey can control their own budgets.

We can’t fix it.

Can I smoke here?

Can you help me?

Ability / Possibility

Inability / Impossibility

Asking for permission

Request

CouldCould I borrow your dictionary?

Could you say it again more slowly?

We could try to fix it ourselves.

I think we could have another Gulf War.

He gave up his old job so he could work for us.

Asking for permission.

Request

Suggestion

Future possibility

Ability in the past

MayMay I have another cup of coffee?

China may become a major economic power.

Asking for permission

Future possibility

Might

We'd better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.

They might give us a 10% discount.

Present possibility

Future possibility

MustWe must say good-bye now.

They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.

Necessity / Obligation

Prohibition

Ought toWe ought to employ a professional writer.Saying what’s right or correct
Shall
(More common in the UK than the US)
Shall I help you with your luggage?

Shall we say 2.30 then?

Shall I do that or will you?

Offer

Suggestion

Asking what to do

ShouldWe should sort out this problem at once.

I think we should check everything again.

Profits should increase next year.

Saying what’s right or correct

Recommending action

Uncertain prediction

WillI can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.

I'll do that for you if you like.

I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.

Profits will increase next year.

Instant decisions

Offer

Promise

Certain prediction

WouldWould you mind if I brought a colleague with me?

Would you pass the salt please?

Would you mind waiting a moment?

"Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be fine."

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

"Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like tea please."

Asking for permission

Request

Request

Making arrangements

Invitation

Preferences

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