describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples.

Despite the overall unity accorded by the monsoon, there are visible regional variations in climatic conditions within India. Regardless of the moderating influences of the Himalayas in the north and the sea in the south, variations do exist in temperature, humidity and precipitation. For example, in summer, some parts of the Rajasthan desert, in north-western India, record temperatures of 50°C, while it may be around 20°C in Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir, in the north of the country. On a winter night, the temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as minus 45°C, while Thiruvananthapuram may have a temperature of 22°C. In general, coastal areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions. Seasonal contrasts are more in the interior of the country.

Another case in point is precipitation. While precipitation is mostly in the form of snowfall in the upper parts of the Himalayas, it rains over the rest of the country. The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan. Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September, but some parts like the Tamil Nadu coast get most of their rain during October and November.

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  1. Q.5: Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with help of suitable examples.
  2. Ans: The climate of India is described as that of the monsoon type. But within this general pattern there are found certain regional variations in climatic conditions. This is because of the variations in temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity and altitude from place to place. The following are a few examples which prove the above fact:
  3. Range of Temperature - Temperature has great bearing on the climate, so difference in temperature is bound to create variation in the climate. In India there are places like, Rajasthan and south-west Punjab, where the mercury rises even up to 55OC. On the other hand, there are places like Dras, near Kargil, where the temperature sometimes, touches as low as -45OC.
  4. Direction of the Rain-bearing Winds - The direction of the Rain-bearing winds has a great impact on the climate of a place. The summer monsoons arising from the Arabian Sea because of their south-west direction strike the Western Ghats first and cause a heavy rainfall there (about 250 cm). But these winds reach the Eastern Ghats last of all so there is less rainfall in Tamil Nadu and consequently it is much lower as compared to the rainfall on the Malabar Coast of the Western Ghats.      
  5. Form of Precipitation - The form of precipitation whether it is in the form of light rains or heavy snow has also a great-bearing on the climate of an area. In winter north-west of India gets some rains due to the Western Disturbances. As a result, there is little rain in the plains of Punjab and Haryana but there is heavy snowfall in the Western Himalayas especially in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. It is all due to the change in the form of precipitation.    
  6. Amount of Rainfall - Difference in rainfall is bound to create variations in climate. In India, there are places like Mawsynram which receives 1080 cm of rainfall annually. This is perhaps the highest rainfall all over the world. On the other hand, there are places in India, especially in Rajasthan, which gets 20 cm of annual rainfall.
  7. Rainfall Regime or Seasonal Distribution of Rains - In India, there are many parts which get rains only in summer while there are others which dry in that season. On the other hand, there are certain places which get rains in winter alone while there are others which get scanty or no rainfall in winter. For example Tamil Nadu and AP get much of their rainfall in winter season, and in summer they are almost dry. This seasonal distribution of rainfall has a great bearing on climate. In summer both Tamil Nadu and AP experience dry and hot season while the rest of the country especially Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra on the west-coast of India has a pleasant climate. 
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Despite the overall unity accorded by the monsoon, there are visible regional variations in climatic conditions within India. Regardless of the moderating influences of the Himalayas in the north and the sea in the south, variations do exist in temperature, humidity and precipitation. For example, in summer, some parts of the Rajasthan desert, in north-western India, record temperatures of 50°C, while it may be around 20°C in Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir, in the north of the country. On a winter night, the temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as minus 45°C, while Thiruvananthapuram may have a temperature of 22°C. In general, coastal areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions. Seasonal contrasts are more in the interior of the country.

Another case in point is precipitation. While precipitation is mostly in the form of snowfall in the upper parts of the Himalayas, it rains over the rest of the country. The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan. Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September, but some parts like the Tamil Nadu coast get most of their rain during October and November.

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