'With' expresses the means used; in simple words, 'with' comes before the instrument or tool used for an action.
For example: The burglar killed him with his bare hands.
The farmer dug the ground with a spade.
'With' expresses 'accompanying'.
For example: My friend will go with me.
It also means 'having something'.
For example: I have my passport with me.

'Agent of an action' is introduced using 'by'.
For example: The bill was passed by the parliament.
'By' means 'close to'.
For example: His house is by the temple.
It means 'through the agency of'.
For example: The huts were destroyed by fire.
It means 'at some time before'.
For example: I finished the work by 10 AM.

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