Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been pursued in most countries.
Social costs of development
A large number of people have been displaced from their homes and localities due to industrialisation.
Displacement causes loss of livelihood and increased impoverishment along with destruction of local culture and community life.
Displacement of rural agricultural communities has resulted in increased number of urban and rural poor and has brought them into the category of marginalised people.
It is responsible for many struggles and social disorganisation.
Ecological costs of development
The present model of development is dependent upon increasing use of energy and is a major cause for environmental degradation.
Consumption of fossil fuels to meet energy requirements is also a major cause of pollution as well as depletion of natural resources.
Global warming has increased due to emission of pollutant gases from industries.
Icebergs of polar regions are melting due to global warming. This would cause flooding and submergence of low lying areas like Bangladesh and Maldives.
Developmental projects have resulted in deforestation, which has created the problem of green house effect, scarcity of firewood, medicinal herbs and food, affecting poor people.
Rivers and ponds are dry up and level of ground water has decreased.