enlist the hormones of gastro intestinal tract.


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Hormone or peptide   Molecular weight (Da) Number of amino acids Main gut localization Principal physiologic actions Gastrin family         Cholecystokinin 3918 33 (also 385, 59) Duodenum and jejunum, Enteric nerves Stimulates gallbladder contraction and intestinal motility; stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes, insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptides; has a role in indicating satiety; the C-terminal 8 amino acid peptide cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 retains full activity Little gastrin 2098 17 Both forms of gastrin are found in the gastric antrum and duodenum Gastrins stimulate the secretion of gastric acid, pepsinogen, intrinsic factor, and secretin; stimulate intestinal mucosal growth; increase gastric and intestinal motility Big gastrin 3839 34     Secretin-glucagon family         Secretin 3056 27 Duodenum and jejunum Stimulates pancreatic secretion of HCO3, enzymes and insulin; reduces gastric and duodenal motility, inhibits gastrin release and gastric acid secretion Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) 3326 28 Enteric nerves Relaxes smooth muscle of gut, blood vessels, and genitourinary system; increases water and electrolyte secretion from pancreas and gut; releases hormones from pancreas, gut, and hypothalamus Glucose-dependent insulinotropic 4976 42 Duodenum and jejunum Stimulates insulin release; reduces gastric and intestinal motility; increases fluid and electrolyte secretion from small intestine
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