Evaluate the various factors that led to the rapid growth in economic development in China.
China’s rapid economic development is an aggregate outcome of the introduction of the reforms in phases since 1978. The following are the various factors that led to the rapid growth in the economic development in China:
- In the initial phase, reforms were initiated in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. The system of collective farming known as Commune System was implemented. Under this system, land was divided into small plots that were allocated to the individual households. These households were allowed to keep the remaining income from land after paying the taxes to the government.
- In the later phase, reforms were initiated in the industrial sector. During this phase, the private firms, village and township enterprises were allowed to produce goods and services and to compete with the State Owned Enterprises.
- The dual pricing were implemented. This implies that the farmers and the industrial units were required to buy and sell a fixed quantity of inputs and output at the price fixed by the government and the remaining quantities were traded at the market price. Gradually, with rapid increase in aggregate production in the later years, the quantities traded in the market increased by many folds.
- The reforms also included setting up of Special Economic Zones to attract foreign investors and to encourage its exports.
Therefore, the aggregate focus of all these economic reforms resulted in rapid industrial growth and economic development in China.