Explain all the terms written in the options of this question.
Q.4) Which of the following specimens is taken from the same surroundings in place of holotype?
A) Isotype
B) Neotype
C) Topotype
D) Paratype

Dear student,

Isotype: Any specimen which is a duplicate of holotype (a single specimen on which taxon name is based)
Neotype: Specimen designated as the name bearing specimen for a taxon for which no earlier holotype, lectotype (a syntype which is later designated as the name bearing type specimen.
), syntype (a specimen cited in the prologue when no type is designated or two or more specimens are designated as types) or prior neotype exists. 
Topotype: A specimen collected from the same locality as the type specimen
Paratype: Specimens of the type of species other than the holotype.



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