Explain applications of Nanomaterial based on that nanostructures in detail.

Dear student,

Nanotechnology is the branch of science and research in technology which deals with forming materials and devices on a nanometer scale or at the atomic level. One nanometre is one billionth of a meter which is equal to ten times the diameter of the hydrogen atom.

Applications of nanotechnology are:

1)A clean nanoscale film can be used in eyeglasses, computer, camera displays which are resistant to U.V. light.

2)Nanoparticles are used to increase the speed of the chemical reaction by working as a catalyst.

3)Nanotechnology is used for the treatment and diagnosis of the atherosclerosis.

4)Nanotechnology can also be used into solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity.

5)Nanoparticles are also being modified to make clear water from the groundwater by purifying it.

Following are some products that make use of nanoparticles:
1. Pharmaceuticals and drugs: Example- Doxil
Doxorubicin-HCl drug is conjugated within liposome particles for efficient drug delivery. It is available in injectable form.
2. Biosensors and diagnostics: Example- Nano-chips, Microarray
They are nano-fluidics diagnostic tools, which either have protein or nucleic acid conjugated on an electrically excitable or colorimetric platform. Signal are recorded from this platform after treating it with biological samples and then interpreted using software. Advantage of such chips is that you can check for multiple markers at once.
3. Nano-formulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement: Examples- Nano-TiO2
This formulation is particularly used for Spinach farming. It has been shown that Nano-TiO2 can improve crop vigour index and also increase the amount of chlorophyll by approximately 28%.
4. Nano-semiconductor devices: Example- Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
They are tools of high mechanical, electronic, thermal, optical, elastic properties and thus used for creating electrical circuits
5. Cosmetics: Example- Sunscreen that uses zinc oxide nanoparticles to block ultraviolet rays (One famous name associated with the formulation is Marie Louis Cosmetics)
They have been proved to have better skin penetration, improved hydration and better protection against UV-B, also they have minimised white coating on the skin.


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