Explain briefly interconversion of states of matter on the basis of kinetic theorey of gases.
Kinetic Theory of matter states that,
All matter is composed of small particles (might be atoms, molecules or ions).
The particles of matter are in constant motion.
All collisions between the particles of matter are perfectly elastic.
The Kinetic Theory explains the differences between the three states of matter.
Solids change into liquids, and liquids into gases, when the particles gain more kinetic energy, like when being heated. Particles move in a straight line between collisions and are able to move apart from one another. When the molecules vibrate more quickly upon heating, some of it escapes from the matter. Hence temperature is a major factor responsible for causing a change in the various states of matter.
Interconversion of matter
Solid - a substance whose particles have a low kinetic energy. The particles of a solid are held close together by intermolecular forces of attraction. Because the particles are so close together, they appear to vibrate around a fixed point.
When the temperature of a solid is raised, the velocity of the particles increases. The collisions between the particles occur with greater force, causing the particles to move farther apart. The ordered arrangement of the solid breaks down and a change in physical state occurs.
Liquid - a substance whose particles have enough kinetic energy to stretch the intermolecular forces of attraction. Collisions between the particles are strong enough to force the particles apart. The particles appear to have a moving vibration because they are still under the influence of the intermolecular forces of attraction.
As the temperature of a liquid is raised, the velocity of the particles increases. The collisions eventually become so great that the particles break all intermolecular forces, begin moving independently between collisions, and a change in physical state occurs.
Gas - a substance whose particles have enough kinetic energy to break all intermolecular forces of attraction. The particles of a gas move independently of each other. The particles move at random because they have overcome the intermolecular forces of attraction.
When a gas is raised to extreme temperatures, over 5000 degree C, they have so much kinetic energy that their collisions will break electrons out of the atoms, and a change in physical state occurs.
Conversely, when gas is cooled beyond its boiling point, it changes to its liquid state. This process is called condensation. When a liquid is cooled beyond its freezing point, it solidifies. This process is called freezing.