explain in detail the steps involved in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop. PLS REPLY SOON.

Steps involved in breeding a new genetic variety of crop are as follows:
1. Collection of variability: The differences among the individuals of the population for a given trait show the variation of that trait. Some variations occur due to genetic (genetic variations). This is the basis of any breeding programme. The sum total of all the alleles of genes present in a crop and its wild relatives constitutes the germplasm. Collection of germplasm is the first andstep for successful breeding programme. Germplasm consists pf:
  • cultivated improved varieties
  •  improved varieties that are no more cultivated
  •  old varieties and wild species related to the crop species.
2. Evaluation and selection of parents: Plants with desirable combination of characters are identified by evaluation of germplasm. The selected plants are multiplied and are used in the process of hybridisation. Selection brings about improvement in the crop. Selection acts on genetic variation present in a population and produces a new population with improved characters.

3. Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: This is a time consuming process. Mating between two (or more) individuals or lines differing in genotype is called hybridisation. It is the most common method of creating genetic variation by bringing traits of two individuals (parents) together in the progeny.  The desired characters often have to be combined from two different parents. For example, high protein quality of one parent may need to be combined with disease resistance from another parent. 

4. Selection and testing of superior recombinants: In this step, the plants which have the combination of desired characters, are selected from the progeny of hybrids. The process is crucial to the success of the breeding programme and requires careful scientific evaluation of progeny. The selection process yields plants that are superior to both the parents. The selected plants are self-pollinated for several generations till they reach a state of uniformity (homozygosity).

5. Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivers: The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other traits of quality, disease, etc. The evaluation  is done by growing the selected lines first in the research fields. After this the material is evaluated  in the farmers field for at least three growing seasons. A new  material that is found superior  to the existing varieties may be released as a new variety after giving it a name. The government notifies each new release.

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