Explain in detail the term of electronegativity....?and explain the factors affecting electronegativity of the element....?
Electronegativity is tendency of an atom to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself in a chemical bond. Since it is only relative electron tendency, it has no specific units.
Electronegativity is related to:
- Size of an atom:
- effective nuclear charge
Atom with small size and high nuclear charge has high electronegativity due to the strong pull exerted on shared electrons by the nucleus. For example, fluorine is highly electronegative element with electro negativity value 3.92 due to small size and high effective nuclear charge.
Atom with greater size and less nuclear charge has low electronegativity as its nucleus does not exert a strong attractive force on shared electrons . For example, Caesium is least electronegative element with electro negativity value 0.7 due to its big sizes and less effective nuclear charge.