Explain : Nanotoxicity in detail (5 marker)

Dear student,

The negative health and microenvironment related impact of nanomaterials is called Nano-toxicity. Nanomaterials are ultra-fine matter with changed physio-chemical properties. They are material with large surface area to volume ratio, enhanced chemical reactivity and higher biological activity. The following are some examples of well established instances of nano-toxicity:
1. Production ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Smaller the dimension larger is the capacity to form ROS in biological system. They are extremely harmful and major reason for oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular damage. (ROS is harmful to the proteins, nucleic acids and cell membranes)
2. They have high adsorption and absorption strength, thus they tend to remain in the system for a longer period of time in comparison to relatively larger objects. Their cytotoxicity can cause fibrosis, cancer and irritation (example Silver and Carbon nano-particle associated disorders).
3. Due to their convenient size and shape they are more readily take up by plasma membrane, they can enter the cell and cause major structural damage to the mitochondria.
4. The diagnosis of exposure is very difficult to determine.
5. The major target organ and distribution of nanoparticle in body is unknown. Although it majorly gets accumulated in liver and spleen causing damage.
6. It is very difficult yo filter nano-material associated contaminants from environment.
7. Their half life is often greater than objects of larger size.
8. They are known to form aggregates which are harmful for living cells, specially embryonic cells.


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