Explain the ‘exclusive’ and ‘inclusive’ methods used in classification of data.

Exclusive Method– This method is used for those series in which the upper limit of one class becomes the lower limit of the next class. It is called as exclusive series because the frequencies of the upper limit of a class interval are not included in that particular class. In such type of series, the upper limit of one class becomes the lower limit of the next class, for example, 0–10, 10–20, 20–30 and so on. The upper limit is excluded but the lower limit is included in the class interval. This method is most appropriate for data of continuous variables.

Inclusive Method– Under this method of classification of data, the classes are formed in such a manner that the upper limit of a class interval does not repeat itself as the lower limit of the next class interval. In such a series, both the upper limit and the lower limit are included in the particular class interval, for example, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15 and so on. The interval 1–5 includes both the limits i.e. 1 and 5.

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