Explain the principle of 'Scalar Chain' and gang plank.

Scalar Chain refers to a pre-defined, formal path of authority and communication in the order of highest to the lowest. For example- if A is the CEO of an organisation and he has two paths of authorities under him. One, A-B-C and the other A-D-E. Everybody in the organisation follows this chain of authority for communication. For example, If C wants to contact with E then he will have to follow this formal path, as C→B→A→D→E. That is, C has to first contact the higher authorities (C →B→A) over him who then transverse the communication to E (A→D→E).

However, in case of emergency C may directly contact E through 'Gang Plank'. Gang plank is a shorter emergency route through which the workers lower in the authority chain can directly contact the persons of higher authority or those working in other scalar chains. 

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