Explain the Principles of Scientific management given by Taylor.

Scientific management implies knowing exactly what is to be done and devising the best ways of doing it. This term was given by Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) in 1911. It suggests that work should be done according to standardised techniques and tools and with the help of specialised personnel so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and the same time reducing the costs. That is, scientific management improves the effectiveness and efficiency of work. 

The following are the principles of scientific management.

1. Science, not a rule of thumb: Before Taylor developed the Principles of Management, Rule of Thumb was a widely used concept. Under rule of thumb, each manger handled a situation or problem as and when they arose using the trial and error method. It was an easily applicable process but was a very vague and inaccurate technique of determining solutions to the problems. Taylor fostered the introduction Scientific methods. He believed that for every work there is only one best method of doing it. He wanted managers to take decisions on the basis of logic and science rather than rule of thumb. He proposed that various traditional methods used by the managers should be studied and the best method/solution among them should be adopted and followed by all the managers in the organisation. With such scientific management he was able to increase efficiency to a large extent.

2. Harmony, not Discord: Taylor emphasised that the managers and the workers should maintain a harmonious work environment. They should realise their interdependence and work in amity. He was well acquainted with the fact that friendly working environment will help in developing the relations between them. He introduced this principle to maintain a peaceful kinship between people. Often it is found that if the workers are deprived of their wishes or demands they generally go on strike. This affects the productivity and the working environment. To dismiss such a situation Taylor was ardent about a mental revolution. It implies a change in the thinking of both the workers and managers. For example, if a worker is having problem with the working hours, he should talk to the manager about it, instead of letting it effect the production (by going on a strike). Similarly, the managers should listen to the worker's suggestions and demands rather than ignoring them.

3. Cooperation, not Individualism: This principle emphasised cooperation among the managers and workers over individualism. This principle was an elongation of the principle of 'Harmony, not discord'. According to it, the workers and the manager should work with mutual understanding of each other. The manager should take care of the labourers. He should share the company gains with the workers; awarding them with sufficient incentives to work. Similarly, the labourers should willingly work, giving their best contribution to the company. This will build up mutual trust and belongingness within both of them. Work and resposibility should be equally divided and a sense of cooperation and coordination should be established.

4. Personnel Development: Any organisation should focus on the development of its workers along with the company's growth. This is because if the workers will have higher proficiency, then they will be able to increase their contribution to the organisation's development. They should introduce ways and incentives to build up their competitiveness. Efforts towards increasing the efficiency should begin at the very first step i.e. while hiring the workers. Employees should be recruited in a scientific manner. They should be assigned works according to their mental/physical qualities. For increasing the efficiency the workers should be given a proper training. 

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