Explain the process of separation of components of air for 5 marks

Air is a homogeneous mixture of different gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. It can be separated by the process of fractional distillation. Separation of the components of air:
1. Air is first filtered to remove dust particles. Then, it is compressed under high pressure.
2. This compressed air is then passed through a water condenser to decrease its temperature.
3. The cold compressed air is now passed through a separator. Here, carbon dioxide separates as dry ice (solid carbon dioxide). Due to repeated compression, air becomes cold that turns into liquid.
4. The liquid air coming out of the separator is passed through an expansion jet into the distillation column. Here, it is warmed slowly. Liquid nitrogen, having the lowest boiling point of –196°C, boils to form liquid nitrogen gas. This gas is collected from the upper part of the column. Argon, having a boiling point of –186°C, is collected next. Oxygen, having a higher boiling point of –183°C, is collected last.
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Sapration of component of air
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