EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF INNER EAR IN HUMAN WITH DIAGRAM

Inner ear is the innermost part of our ears which has two most important functional parts –

Cochlea – Its main functions are hearing by converting sound pressure from outer ear into electrochemical impulses that are transported to the brain.

Vestibular system – It maintains balance.

 

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We hear different types of sounds originating from different sources, such as vehicles, flutes, dogs, engines, people, etc., everyday. We are able to hear all the sounds whose frequencies fall within the human hearing range with the help of our ears. Have you wondered how our ear works?

In this section, we will study about the structure and functioning of human ear in detail.

 

Structure of human ear

 

The ear is one of the five sensory organs of our body. It recognizes the sound waves from various sources. The following figure shows the structure of a human ear.

 

 

The human ear consists of three main parts known as the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The following chart shows the various parts of the ear.

 

 

  • Eardrum is the intersection of the outer and the middle ear.

  • Oval window is the intersection of the middle and the inner ear.

 

The stirrup bone of the middle ear is the smallest bone in human body.

 

Functioning of human ear

 

The following table lists the functions of different parts of the human ear.

 

Ear part

Sub-part

Functioning

Outer ear

Pinna

Collects and sends the sound to the ear canal

Ear canal

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We hear different types of sounds originating from different sources, such as vehicles, flutes, dogs, engines, people, etc., everyday. We are able to hear all the sounds whose frequencies fall within the human hearing range with the help of our ears. Have you wondered how our ear works?

 

 

 

In this section, we will study about the structure and functioning of human ear in detail.

 

 

 

Structure of human ear

 

 

 

The ear is one of the five sensory organs of our body. It recognizes the sound waves from various sources. The following figure shows the structure of a human ear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The human ear consists of three main parts known as the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The following chart shows the various parts of the ear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eardrum is the intersection of the outer and the middle ear.

 

 

 

Oval window is the intersection of the middle and the inner ear.

 

 

 

The stirrup bone of the middle ear is the smallest bone in human body.

 

 

 

Functioning of human ear

 

 

 

The following table lists the functions of different parts of the human ear.

 

 

 

Ear part

 

Sub-part

 

Functioning

 

Outer ear

 

Pinna

 

Collects and sends the sound to the ear canal

 

Ear canal

 

Sound travels through it to reach the eardrum

 

Ear drum or tympanic membrane

 

A very sensitive membrane that vibrates in response to the sound

 

Middle ear

 

Middle ear bones

 

Transfers the sound energy to the cochlea

 

Eustachian tube

 

Connects the middle ear to the throat

 

Inner ear

 

Semi-circular canal

 

Sends messages to the brain for balancing

 

Cochlea

 

Sends sound messages in the form of electrical impulses to the brain

 

Auditory nerve

 

Conducts electrical messages to the brain when sound is heard
 
 
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Inner Ear
Components of the inner ear

INTRODUCTION:-

The inner ear includes both the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and a sense organ that is attuned to the effects of both gravity and motion (labyrinth or vestibular apparatus). The balance portion of the inner ear consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. The inner ear is encased in the hardest bone of the body. Within this ivory hard bone, there are fluid-filled hollows. Within the cochlea are three fluid filled spaces: the scala tympani, the scala vestibuli and the scala media. The eighth cranial nerve comes from the brain stem to enter the inner ear. When sound strikes the ear drum, the movement is transferred to the footplate of the stapes, which presses it into one of its fluid-filled ducts through the oval window of cochlea . The fluid inside this duct is moved, flowing against the receptor cells of the Organ of Corti, which fire. These stimulate the spiral ganglion, which sends information through the auditory portion of the eighth cranial nerve to the brain.The semicircular canals help in both dynamic and static balance. The three semicircular canals and ampulla (with otolith) help in dynamic balance, while utricullus and sacullus help in static balance.

Hair cells are also receptor cells involved in balance, although the hair cells of the auditory and vestibular systems of the ear are not identical. Vestibular hair cells are stimulated by the movement of fluid in the semicircular canals and the utricle and saccule. Firing of vestibular hair cells stimulates the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve.

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