Explain the working and principle of CYCLOTRON!!!WITH DIAGRAM!!

The working of a cyclotron is based on the fact that the frequency of revolution of charged particle is not dependent on the energy.

  • Particle moves inside the two semi-circular disc-like metal containers D 1 and D 2 called Dees.

  • When the particle moves from one Dee to another, it is acted upon by electric field.

  • Electric field changes sign alternately. Therefore, the particle is accelerated by the electric field, which increases the energy of the particle.

  • The increase in energy increases the radius of the circular path.

Hence, the path is a spiral one.

  • Time period of revolution is


 

This frequency is called the cyclotron frequency.

 

The working principle of a cyclotron involves the use of an electric field to accelerate charge particles across the gap between two D shaped magnetic field regions. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of the charged particles makes them follow circular paths within two Dees. An alternating voltage accelerates the charged particles each time they cross the Dees. The radius of each particle’s path increases with its speed, so the accelerated particles spiral toward the outer wall of the cyclotron.

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 In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, the cyclotron frequency or gyrofrequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction. Since that motion is always circular, the cyclotron frequency is well defined.

Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times.

The cyclotron was invented by Leo Szilárd and first manufactured by Ernest Lawrence, of the University of California, Berkeley who started operating it in 1932, though others had been working along similar lines at the time.[citation needed] The first European cyclotron was founded in Leningrad in the physics department of the Radium Institute (Head Vitali Khlopin). In 1932 George Gamowand Lev Mysovskii presented a draft for consideration by the Scientific Council of the Radium Institute, and the approval of it, under the guidance and direct participation of the Igor Kurchatov and Lev Mysovskii cyclotron was installed and running by 1937.

TRIUMF, Canada's national laboratory for nuclear and particle physics, houses the world's largest cyclotron. The 18m diameter, 4,000 tonne main magnet produces a field of 0.46 T while a 23 MHz 94 kV electric field is used to accelerate the 300 μA beam. TRIUMF is run by a consortium of sixteen Canadian universities and is located at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

How the cyclotron works

Diagram of cyclotron operation from Lawrence's 1934 patent
Beam of electrons moving in a circle. Lighting is caused by excitation of gas atoms in a bulb.

The electrodes shown at the right would be in the vacuum chamber, which is flat, in a narrow gap between the two poles of a large magnet. In the cyclotron, a high-frequency alternating voltageapplied across the "D" electrodes (also called "dees") alternately attracts and repels charged particles. The particles, injected near the center of the magnetic field, increase in speed (and therefore energy) only when passing through the gap between the electrodes. The perpendicular magnetic field (passing vertically through the "D" electrodes), combined with the increasing energy of the particles forces the particles to travel in a spiral path. With no change in energy the charged particles in a magnetic field will follow a circular path. In the cyclotron, energy is applied to the particles as they cross the gap between the dees and so they are accelerated (at the typical sub-relativistic speeds used) and will increase in mass as they approach the speed of light. Either of these effects (increased velocity or increased mass) will increase the radius of the circle and so the path will be a spiral. (The particles move in a spiral, because a current of electrons or ions, flowing perpendicular to a magnetic field, experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion. The charged particles move freely in a vacuum, so the particles follow a spiral path.) The radius will increase until the particles hit a target at the perimeter of the vacuum chamber. Various materials may be used for the target, and the collisions will create secondary particles which may be guided outside of the cyclotron and into instruments for analysis. The results will enable the calculation of various properties, such as the mean spacing between atoms and the creation of various collision products. Subsequent chemical and particle analysis of the target material may give insight into nuclear transmutation of the elements used in the target.

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 pls thumps up

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but this is from wikipedia right????i want a simpler answer!!!
and by the way....thanx for this too!!!:)

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 ur welcome.

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a cyclotron is a device which is used to accelerate charged particles to higher energies.

PRINCIPLE: when a charge q moves normal to a magentic field it experiences magnetic lorentz force due to which it moves in circular path .

when a charged particle of mass ' m' and charge q is accelerated towards the Dee having -ve polarity at that instant and normal magnetic field produces magnetic lorentz force which provides centripetal force for the electron to move in a circular path of radius 'r' .By the time the particle reaches the gap the polarity changes thus the particle is again accelerated towards the Dee having -ve polarity at that instant. thus the particle moves in spiral path increasing the radius and velocity.we it reaches the edge the particle is taken out with the help of a deflector plate

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a cyclotron is a device which is used to accelerate charged particles to higher energies.

PRINCIPLE: when a charge q moves normal to a magentic field it experiences magnetic lorentz force due to which it moves in circular path .

when a charged particle of mass ' m ' and charge q is accelerated towards the Dee having -ve polarity at that instant and normal magnetic field produces magnetic lorentz force which provides centripetal force for the electron to move in a circular path of radius 'r ' .By the time the particle reaches the gap the polarity changes thus the particle is again accelerated towards the Dee having -ve polarity at that instant. thus the particle moves in spiral path increasing the radius and velocity.we it reaches the edge the particle is taken out with the help of a deflector plate

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 in a simple way ..............

it is a particle accelerator which is used to increase the k.e of +ve charged particle

principe: in the cyclotron the k.e of the +vely charged particles increased by applying the electric nd magnetic fields in mutually perpendicular directionsso that the charged particles make no.of relations in that fields.

f=bqv

f=mv2/r

by comparing those we get

bqv=mv2/r        v=bqr/m     sub this in t=2paim/bq      f=bq/2pai m______cyclotron frequency 

f

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 tyy

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 it is used to accelerate the charged the parrticles .it consist of ccharged 

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 a device to accelerate charged particle  with help of magnetic field...........by repeated application of accelerating potential.........

" the frequency of revolution of charged particle must be equal to frequency of radio frequency voltage source.........

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What is cyclotron??
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↵A cyclotron is a device used to accelerate charged particles (protons and deutron) to a very high speed (KE).

PRINCIPLE
In a cyclotron particle is made to move in a circular path using magnetic field and is accelerated using electric field.

Frequency of revolution of the charged particle is independent of its energy in a magnetic field.

Time for one revolution of an ion is independent of its speed or radius of its orbit.


    
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