explain the working of VAN DE GRAFF GENERATOR?

Initially the generator is started by giving the first comb a positive potential by a strong source of near about ${10}^{4}$ Volt. Then an electric wind will be produced having positive charge. It occurs due to the discharging of charge from the sharp edges. The belt will continuously move and when it will reach the sphere an induced negative charge will be produced on the sharp edges of the comb B2. Then immediately an induced positive charge will be produced on the other side of the comb B2. So, the charge will shift and it will be transferred to sphere S. Again, due to the discharging action of the B2, wind will be produced but this time it will be negatively charged. This negatively charged wind will help to make the positively charged belt neutral. After this action the belt will be totally discharged. Again after rotation when the belt will come down it will take the positive charge from the comb 1 and again this charge will be taken by the comb B2.

This process repeats again and again and charge will start collecting on the sphere S.

$\mathrm{Charge}\mathrm{carrying}\mathrm{capacity}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{sphere}=4\mathrm{\pi}{\in}_{0}\mathrm{R}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{where},\mathrm{R}=\mathrm{Radius}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{sphere}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{So},\mathrm{V}=\frac{\mathrm{Q}}{4\mathrm{\pi}{\in}_{0}\mathrm{R}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{Now},\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{Potential}\mathrm{and}\mathrm{charge}\mathrm{are}\mathrm{directly}\mathrm{proportional}\mathrm{to}\mathrm{each}\mathrm{other}.\mathrm{Increasing}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{charge},\mathrm{potential}\mathrm{also}\mathrm{increases}.\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{Therefore},\mathrm{due}\mathrm{to}\mathrm{this}\mathrm{charging}\mathrm{and}\mathrm{discharging}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{air}\mathrm{present}\mathrm{around}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{sphere}\mathrm{S}\mathrm{will}\mathrm{start}\mathrm{ionzing}\mathrm{and}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{potential}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{spherical}\mathrm{belt}\mathrm{will}\mathrm{cross}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{value}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{air}\text{'}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{breakdown}\mathrm{field}\mathrm{i}.\mathrm{e}.3\times {10}^{6}.\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{When}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{ionization}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{air}\mathrm{starts}\mathrm{then}\mathrm{side}\mathrm{by}\mathrm{side}\mathrm{leakage}\mathrm{of}\mathrm{charge}\mathrm{will}\mathrm{also}\mathrm{take}\mathrm{place}.\mathrm{But}\mathrm{the}\mathrm{leakage}\mathrm{is}\mathrm{minimized}\mathrm{by}\mathrm{this}\mathrm{steel}\mathrm{chamber}.$

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