explain various steps of budding in yeast?
Yeast is an eukaryotic unicelllular organism. It reproduces through the process of budding. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction. In this a new individual is produced as an outgrowth (bud) on the parent, and after maturity is released as an independent, identical copy of the parent. This process involves cell division.
Major steps involved in budding of yeast are as follows:
- Bud emergence- In this step, small outgrowth (bud) start to grow out from the parent body of yeast along with the movement of cytoplasm.
- Nuclear migration- Before this step, DNA replication occurs to duplicate the nuclear material in the parent yeast cell. After DNA replication, part of the duplicated nuclear material start to migrate towards emerging bud. This step can also be called karyokinesis as nuclear material starts to divide into two parts ,one for the original parent cell and other part for the newly forming cell (bud).
- Complete bud development: In this step the developing bud fully grows in size while being attached to the parent body along with completion of nuclear division (karyokinesis). At the end of this step, the bud is called developed bud.
- Separation of bud-After complete bud development, the matured bud gets separated from the parent by the formation of a wall. The matured bud also called as daughter cell, then falls off and germinates into a new individual identical to the parent.
The cell cycle is the succession of events whereby a cell grows anddivides into two daughter cells that each contain the information andmachinery necessary to repeat the process. Between one cell division andthe next, all essential components of the cell must be duplicated.Themost important component is the genetic material (DNA molecules presentin chromosomes), which must be accurately replicated and the two copiescarefully segregated to the two daughter cells.