explain..why a pencil partly immersed in water appears to be bent at the water surface
When a pencil is obliquely dipped in water , the ray of light travelling from pencil to observer travel from denser medium to rarer medium & hence bend away from normal . In this way , every point of the dipped part of pencil has a virtual image slightly above the original position . So the pencil appears to be bent / broken at surface of water.
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suppose two rays originate from the end of the pencil in water.as these rays get refracted into the air they bent away from the normal.when these two refracted rays are produced backwards they seem to meet at a point higher than the end of the pencil.this point gives the apparent position of the end of the pencil.thus,pencil appears to be bent.