Endoplasmic reticulum is an interconnected network of membranous structures like tubules, vesicles, and cisternae . Cisternae are the flattened disk-like membranous structures. Tubules are tubular in shape, while vesicles are sac-like structures.
There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum, namely smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) . When ribosomes get attached to the surface of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, it becomes rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum:
Smooth ER synthesizes fats and lipids.
It also takes part in the metabolism of carbohydrates.
It actively participates in drug detoxification.
It maintains the calcium ion concentration in the cytosol.
Functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum:
Most of the lysosomal proteins are produced in the rough ER.
It transports proteins to various destinations like the plasma membrane.
This is the major site of glycosylation (addition of carbohydrates in proteins).
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If nucleus is removed from a cell, the cell cannot be able to divide and cannot function properly as the genetic informations remain inside a nucleus and it controls the functions of other cell organelles. Eventually the cell will die.