give a short summary of chipko movement in 200 words.........

  • The Chipko movement started in the early 1970s in the Garhwal Himalayas of Uttarakhand, then in Uttar Pradesh with growing awareness towards rapid deforestation.
  • This movement incorporated Gandhian methods of satyagraha and non-violent resistance, through the act of hugging trees to protect them from being felled.
  • Women were active participants in this movement.


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The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan (literally "to stick" in Hindi ) is a social-ecological movement that practised the Gandhian methods of satyagraha and non-violent resistance, through the act of hugging trees to protect them from falling. The modern Chipko movement started in the early 1970s in the GarhwalHimalayas of Uttarakhand , [1] with growing awareness towards rapid deforestation. The landmark event in this struggle took place on March 26, 1974, when a group of peasant women in Reni village, Hemwalghati, in Chamoli district Uttarakhand , India, acted to prevent the cutting of trees and reclaim their traditional forest rights that were threatened by the contractor system of the state Forest Department. Their actions inspired hundreds of such actions at the grassroots level throughout the region. By the 1980s the movement had spread throughout India and led to formulation of people-sensitive forest policies, which put a stop to the open felling of trees in regions as far reaching as Vindhyas and theWestern Ghats . [2]

The first recorded event of Chipko however, took place in village Khejarli Jodhpur district , in 1730 AD, when 363 Bishnois , led by Amrita Devi sacrificed their lives while protecting green Khejri trees, considered sacred by the community, by hugging them, and braved the axes of loggers sent by the local ruler, [3]today it is seen an inspiration and a precursor for Chipko movement of Garhwal. [4] [5]

The Chipko movement, though primarily a livelihood movement rather than a forest conservation movement, went on to become a rallying point for many future environmentalists , environmental protests and movements the world over and created a precedent for non-violent protest. [6] [7] It occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent Tree hugging movement , which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power. Above all, it stirred up the existing civil society in India, which began to address the issues of tribal and marginalized people. So much so that, a quarter of a century later, India Today mentioned the people behind the "forest satyagraha" of the Chipko movement as amongst "100 people who shaped India". [8] Today, beyond the eco-socialismhue, it is being seen increasingly as an ecofeminism movement. Although many of its leaders were men, women were not only its backbone, but also its mainstay, because they were the ones most affected by the rampant deforestation, [ citation needed ] , which led to a lack of firewood and fodder as well as water for drinking and irrigation . Over the years they also became primary stakeholders in a majority of the afforestation work that happened under the Chipko movement. [2] [3] [9] [10]

In 1987 the Chipko Movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award [11]

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  The Chipko Movement refers to the unique form of protest adopted by the rural people in the Himalayan region of India in the 1970s and 80s, against the indiscriminate logging and felling of trees that spelt the destruction of their environment.

The first Chipko action occurred in April 1973. Over the next five years, the movement spread to several hill districts in Uttar Pradesh. In 1980, Chipko activists won a fifteen-year ban on green felling in the Himalayan forests. The movement has also succeeded in stopping the felling of trees in the Western Ghats and the Vindhyas. Spurred by its victories, the Chipko Movement spread to Himachal Pradesh, Kamataka, Rajasthan, Bihar and to the Vindhyas in Central India.

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