Give main features of Indus river valley system

a) Town Planning

The ruins of Mohenjodaro provides evidence to confirm the existence of a system of planning in the city. The streets were broad and straight cutting each other at right angles. The drains were lined with bricks and manholes to facilitate regular cleaning. This speaks  highly of the civilization's advanced nature.

(b) Society

Society in the Indus valley civilization is said to have comprised of three distinct social groups. One group ruled and administered the city, the other group included the merchants who were associated with trade and other business activities in the city. The third group were the labourers who worked in the city. They also included the farmers who cultivated wheat and barley as their main crops. Animals like the buffaloes, sheeps and pigs and the humped bull were bred. Fish, mutton, beef, poultry and pork consisted the food they ate. Animals like the elephant, camels and dogs were also domesticated. The discovery of a large number of clay spindles suggest  the use of cotton besides woolen  and linen fabrics.

c) Occupation

The discovery of various equipments such as axes, knives, spears and daggers made of bronze and copper suggest metal work as a major profession commonly pursued in the towns. Copper was used for making weapons and utensils besides ornaments. Spinning, weaving and pottery also formed important occupation. Pottery in red with designs painted in black resembling shapes such as interesting circles, pipal, leaves, peacocks were on it. The discovery of numerous seals made of clay with figures of animals like the tiger, rhinoceros, elephant and crocodile gives us more information of the significance of these animals in the Harappan society. These seals also have inscriptions in pictographic script.  

(d) Trade

The Indus valley people maintained commercial contacts with Egypt and Crete, Mesopotamia and the towns in the Persian Gulf. Excavations at Lothal reveals the existence of a dock supporting the activities of trade in that period

(e) Religion

The  clay seals discovered during excavation reveals the presence of  a male god. The figure of a female god also suggest  their beliefs on the female was source of creation. The seal with a male god wearing a head dress surrounded by various animals exhorts the belief in the male symbol of strength. The Indus valley people cremated their death. This idea has been established owing to the discovery of many urns containing human bones and ashes

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