grasses have an adaptive mechanism to compensate photorespiratory losses . name & describe the mechanism ?

Photorespiration can occur when carbon dioxide levels are low. Some plants such as maize, sugarcane and most of the grasses are C4 plant. They show special anatomy called Kranz anatomy. The primary function of Kranz anatomy is avoiding photorespiration.

The vascular bundles of the plant are surrounded by two rings of cells. They are the inner ring and the outer ring.  The inner ring cells around the vascular bundles of the C4 plants are called bundle of sheath cells and the leaves which have such anatomy are said to have ‘Kranz anatomy’.  Kranz means wreath and is a reflection of the arrangement of the cells. The bundle sheath cells may form several layers around the vascular bundles; they are characterized by having a large number of chloroplasts, thick walls impervious to gaseous exchange. This adaptation helps the plants to avoid photorespiration.

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