Hamburger phenomenon is associated with transport of


b-carbon dioxide


d-carbon monoxide

which one is correct?

The correct answer is b) Carbon dioxide

To maintain the ionic balance , chloride ions move into the erythrocytes in exchange of bicarbonates  moving out of the erythrocytes. This phenomenon is called chloride shift or hamburger's phenomenon. Bicarbonates  ions are generated in RBC as a result of activity of carbonic anhydrase on carbon dioxide. 

Most of carbon dioxide is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions with the help of enzyme called  carbonic anhydrase present in RBC. At the tissue site where partial pressure of CO2 is high due to catabolism, CO2 diffuses into blood (RBCs and plasma) and combines with water to form carbonic acid in RBCs. This reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase in both the directions.Carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions.This reaction is also catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase in both the directions. This reaction results in production and then increase in intracellular concentration of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. Red blood cells are impermeable to hydrogen ions but are able to exchange bicarbonate ions for chloride ions. So, to maintain ionic balance,  exchange of chloride ions with bicarbonate ions  occur between plasma and RBCs. 

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