how are breathing movements controlled ?


Breathing movements are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
The parasympathetic system slows the breathing rate. It causes the bronchial tubes to narrow and the pulmonary blood vessels to widen. 
The sympathetic system increases the breathing rate. It makes the bronchial tubes widen and the pulmonary blood vessels narrow.

Muscles in the chest and abdomen tighten or contract to create a slight vacuum around the lungs. This causes air to flow in. When we exhale, the muscles relax and the lungs deflate on their own.
The breathing muscles include:  
The diaphragm: This dome-shaped muscle below the lungs separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. The diaphragm is the main muscle used for breathing. 
The muscles between ribs: Called intercostal muscles, these muscles play a role in breathing during physical activity. 
Abdominal muscles: We use these muscles to help  breathe out when we are breathing fast, such as during physical activity.

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