How did teh Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse help the British to gain control over India?

Both the process of Doctrine of lapse and subsidiary alliance were used by the Britishers as the powerful tools for the policy of annexation because these were the instruments where they had to put or invest the least effort and that too at the cost of Indian economy and Indian Power and gain much .They were able to annex many parts of India with these instruments either when there was no heir of the ruler or when ruler was backed or supportd by the British against his enemy.

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At the end of it all, the British had the advantage of better manpower, were militarily more powerful and stronger, and add to it they had some very canny strategists too. And the disunity among Indian princely states, their constant warring with each other, just added to the advantage.and the indian rulers became virtual puppets in the hand of british.                                                         

  • Doctrine of Lapse. One of the most effective tactics, the British used to take over most of India. Instead of waging an all out war against some of the princely states, they signed a treaty with them, where in if the ruling king died without a heir, the East India company could take over that. And that is how Satara became one of the first states to end up under British rule. And that was also the main reason for the conflict in Jhansi.         
  • Subsidiary alliance was also an effective instrument. According to this alliance, the kingdom which signs the treaty will have to maintain the following rules:

    • The British agreed to maintain a permanent and fixed subsidiary force within the territory of their ally.
    • In return, they didn't take money but took over a part of the territory of the ally.
    • A British officer called "resident" was placed at the court of the ruler.{he could interfere in the internal matters of the kingdom}
    • The ally could not maintain any relation with any other ruler without the approval of the British.{so,when the rulers wanted to revolt against the British they are alone.}

    The Indian rulers felt a false sense of security but in reality they were losing their independence. On the other hand the Britishers maintained large forces at the expenses of the Indian rulers and also increase their area of influence. Some states brought under control through this policy are Hyderabad, Tanjore, Awadh, etc.

  • The payment of huge amounts of money for the maintenance of British troops was a heavy drain on their resources. Indian states became impoverished while the British could maintain a portion of their army at the expense of Indian rulers.
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