how does zener diode act as voltage regulator

zener diode as voltage regulator

The zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator. Once the breakdown occurs, the potential difference across the diode does not increase even if the applied battery potential is increased. The (V-I) graph shows the characteristics of a zener diode. Even if the applied Voltage (Vi) fluctuates, the current through the load resistance 'RL' remains the same. The voltage across the diode practically remains the same.

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At breakdown and after the output voltage becomes constant at the value of zener voltage even when input voltage increases. Thus, the zener diode will give the same output voltage for all the input voltages of higher values. It becomes a voltage stabilizer for a voltage equal to the value of  Zener voltage.
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the unregulated zener dc voltage is connected to the zener diode through a series resistance(Rs) such that the zener diode is reverse biased. if the input voltage increases the current through Rs and zener diode increases. this increases the voltage across Rs without any change in voltage across zener diode. this is because in the breakdown region, zener voltage remains constant even though current changes.
similarly if input voltage decreases the current through Rs and zener diode decreases. this decreases the voltage across Rs without any change in voltage across zener diode.
thus zener diode acts as voltage regulator.
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