How is soil formed? Explain each point thoroughly.

Dear Student,

Soil is formed by a natural process known as weathering of rocks, where large pieces of rocks are broken down into smaller pieces.
Weathering occurs by following three means:
(i) Physical weathering: It occurs because of change in climatic factors such as temperature, wind, rain water, ice and snow.
(ii) Chemical weathering: It occurs through chemical processes such as hydrolysis, hydration, oxidation and reduction. The primary end products of chemical weathering are silica, clay, inorganic salts and hydrated oxides.
(iii) Biological weathering: It is carried out by living organisms such as lichens and bryophytes.  


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When big rocks are crushed to very small stones they stay in the soil. Due to high heat during daytime the rocks expand and at night they contract . Due to this continuous process the stobe develops cracks and water goes inside the cracks and during cold season the water forms ice. Due to pressure the stone breaks into parts of small pieces. Sometimes they break due to plant roots. These fine particles ultimately are broken down to small pieces and it forms soil. Several physical , chemical and biological conditions are responsible for the texture, colour and appearance of the soil content. Soil takes millions of years in formation of the soil upto few centimeters.
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Hope this helps you...

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