How it is possible in oxalis and viola plants to produce assured seed sets even in the absence of pollinators?

In plants like Oxalis and Viola, two types of flowers are present: (a) Closed flowers (Cleistogamous flowers): These flowers are very small, odourless, colourless and without nectar. In these flowers self-pollination takes place. (b) Aerial flowers (Chasmogamous flowers): These flowers open like normal flowers. Aerial flowers are larger, brightly coloured and scented and in these flower cross-pollination takes place. Hence, the presence of cleistogamous flowers ensures seed set in the absence of pollinators in plants like Oxalis and Viola.

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In oxalis, viola both types of flowers are present-----cleistogamous (closed) and chasmogameous (open). Since closed flowers are present there 2ill be assured seed setting

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