How some men became rulers

Dear Student

The Aryans started moving between 1000 BC and 600 BC from the north-west and Punjab regions to the ganga-Yamuna plains. The Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda, the Upanishads and the Mahabharata were created after the Rig Veda, hence are called ‘Later Vedic’. 

In the Vedic period, the society was divided in to four groups or Varnas i.e. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras as per the occupations. This Varna system was flexible and in the later Vedic period, the Varna of a person was decided on the basis of his birth. In spite of the huge following of the Varna system, many people opposed it. 
In the early Vedic period, a Raja was elected by the people. However, later this system started fading and powerful men established their own kingdoms declaring themselves as Raja. They would perform the ritual of Ashwamedha or horse sacrifice to declare their supremacy.


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